Functions of the biological systems are directly dependent on human activities. It is therefore evident that the well-being and development of future generations are linked to the availability of natural resources (water, raw materials, fertile soil), ecosystem services and the ability of the planet to contain human impact. The protection and enhancement of biodiversity, ecosystems and services are fundamental prerequisites for the reduction of poverty and a sustainable development. In this context the objectives of the project area can be summarized as follows: 1. Collection, conservation and protection of animal, plant and microbial biodiversity. 2. Characterization and enhancement of genetic resources using genetic, -omics and biotechnological approaches integrated with the development of bioinformatics and with the initiatives undertaken in the other project areas. 3. Sustainability of production and optimization of the efficiency of the use of natural resources in the various ecosystems, with particular reference to 3a) water; 3b) soil fertility; 3c) limiting nutritional factors (N, P, microelements).