Plant parasitic nematodes are important pathogens in many fields, because without an appropriate control, they may cause significant losses of both yield and quality.
The effective management of the diseases caused by nematodes is multifactorial, though, in most crops it mainly maintains the nematode populations below acceptable economic threshold levels, thanks to chemical nematocides. However, chemical control is costly and poses safety and environmental concerns, therefore suppression of plant parasitic nematodes with others strategies is a desirable alternative to chemicals.
Plant resistance for example is correlated with the activation of an array of defence mechanisms. The plant able to strongly activate signalling pathway are the most efficient in suppressing the pathogen. Changes in gene expression of plants, treated with SAR inducers and infected by nematodes are under investigation in the perspective of a practical use of this molecules, as an effective and safe alternative to chemical control. Extracts, essential oil and others molecules are used in this sustainable management.
The plant’s response involves transcriptional activation of numerous defense-related genes, opening of ion channels, modifications of protein phosphorylation status, and activation of preformed enzymes which lead to specific modifications of primary and secondary metabolism.
Epigenetic modification, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic and abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genetic information.
Biodiversity is a large prospective to analyze all of this problems and to suggest solution.